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如何在Kubernetes中实现容器原地升级

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Author: xidianwangtao@gmail.com, Based Kubernetes 1.12

摘要:在Kubernetes中,Pod是调度的基本单元,也是所有内置Workload管理的基本单元,无论是Deployment还是StatefulSet,它们在对管理的应用进行更新时,都是以Pod为单位,Pod作为Immutable Unit。然而,在部署业务时,Pod中除了业务容器,经常会有一个甚至多个SideCar Container,如何在不影响业务Container的情况下,完成对SideCar Container的原地升级呢,这正是本文需要探讨的技术实现。

为什么需要容器的原地升级

在Docker的世界,容器镜像作为不可变基础设施,解决了环境依赖的难题,而Kubernetes将这提升到了Pod的高度,希望每次应用的更新都通过ReCreate Pod的方式完成,这个理念是非常好的,这样每次ReCreate都是全新的、干净的应用环境。对于微服务的部署,这种方式并没有带来多大的负担,而对于传统应用的部署,一个Pod中可能包含了主业务容器,还有不可剥离的依赖业务容器,以及SideCar组件容器等,这时的Pod就显得很臃肿了,如果因为要更新其中一个SideCar Container而继续按照ReCreate Pod的方式进行整个Pod的重建,那负担还是很大的,体现在:

  • Pod的优雅终止时间(默认30s);
  • Pod重新调度后可能存在的多个容器镜像的重新下载耗费时间较长;
  • 应用启动时间;

因此,因为要更新一个轻量的SideCar却导致了分钟级的单个Pod的重建过程,如果应用副本数高达成百上千,那么整体耗费时间可想而知,如果是使用StatefulSet OrderedReady PodManagementPolicy进行更新的,那代价就是难于接受的。

因此,我们迫切希望能实现,只升级Pod中的某个Container,而不用重建整个Pod,这就是我们说的容器原地升级能力。

Kubernetes是否已经支持Container原地升级

答案是:支持!其实早在两年都前的Kubernetes v1.5版本就有了对应的代码逻辑,本文以Kubernetes 1.12版本的代码进行解读。

很多同学肯定会觉得可疑,Kubernetes中连真正的ReStart都没有,都是ReCreate Pod,怎么会只更新Container呢?没错,在内置的众多Workload的Controller的逻辑中,确实如此。Kubernetes把容器原地升级的能力只做在Kubelet这一层,并没有暴露在Deployment、StatefulSet等Controller中直接提供给用户,原因很简单,还是建议大家把Pod作为完整的部署单元。

Kubelet启动后通过syncLoop进入到主循环处理Node上Pod Changes事件,监听来自file,apiserver,http三类的事件并汇聚到kubetypes.PodUpdate Channel(Config Channel)中,由syncLoopIteration不断从kubetypes.PodUpdate Channel中消费。

  • 为了实现容器原地升级,我们更改Pod.Spec中对应容器的Image,就会生成kubetypes.UPDATE类型的事件,在syncLoopIteration中调用HandlePodUpdates进行处理。
pkg/kubelet/kubelet.go:1870

func (kl *Kubelet) syncLoopIteration(configCh <-chan kubetypes.PodUpdate, handler SyncHandler,
	syncCh <-chan time.Time, housekeepingCh <-chan time.Time, plegCh <-chan *pleg.PodLifecycleEvent) bool {
	select {
	case u, open := <-configCh:
		...
		switch u.Op {
		...
		case kubetypes.UPDATE:
			glog.V(2).Infof("SyncLoop (UPDATE, %q): %q", u.Source, format.PodsWithDeletionTimestamps(u.Pods))
			handler.HandlePodUpdates(u.Pods)
		...
	...
	}
...
}	
  • HandlePodUpdates通过dispatchWork分发任务,交给podWorker.UpdatePod进行Pod的更新处理,每个Pod都会per-pod goroutines进行Pod的管理工作,也就是podWorker.managePodLoop。在managePodLoop中调用Kubelet.syncPod进行Pod的sync处理。

  • Kubelet.syncPod中会根据需求进行Pod的Kill、Cgroup的设置、为Static Pod创建Mirror Pod、为Pod创建data directories、等待Volume挂载等工作,最重要的还会调用KubeGenericRuntimeManager.SyncPod进行Pod的状态维护和干预操作。

  • KubeGenericRuntimeManager.SyncPod确保Running Pod处于期望状态,主要执行以下操作。容器原地升级背后的核心原理就从这里开始。

    1. Compute sandbox and container changes.
    2. Kill pod sandbox if necessary.
    3. Kill any containers that should not be running.
    4. Create sandbox if necessary.
    5. Create init containers.
    6. Create normal containers.
  • KubeGenericRuntimeManager.SyncPod中首先调用kubeGenericRuntimeManager.computePodActions检查Pod Spec是否发生变更,并且返回PodActions,记录为了达到期望状态需要执行的变更内容。

pkg/kubelet/kuberuntime/kuberuntime_manager.go:451

// computePodActions checks whether the pod spec has changed and returns the changes if true.
func (m *kubeGenericRuntimeManager) computePodActions(pod *v1.Pod, podStatus *kubecontainer.PodStatus) podActions {
	glog.V(5).Infof("Syncing Pod %q: %+v", format.Pod(pod), pod)

	createPodSandbox, attempt, sandboxID := m.podSandboxChanged(pod, podStatus)
	changes := podActions{
		KillPod:           createPodSandbox,
		CreateSandbox:     createPodSandbox,
		SandboxID:         sandboxID,
		Attempt:           attempt,
		ContainersToStart: []int{},
		ContainersToKill:  make(map[kubecontainer.ContainerID]containerToKillInfo),
	}

	// If we need to (re-)create the pod sandbox, everything will need to be
	// killed and recreated, and init containers should be purged.
	if createPodSandbox {
		if !shouldRestartOnFailure(pod) && attempt != 0 {
			// Should not restart the pod, just return.
			return changes
		}
		if len(pod.Spec.InitContainers) != 0 {
			// Pod has init containers, return the first one.
			changes.NextInitContainerToStart = &pod.Spec.InitContainers[0]
			return changes
		}
		// Start all containers by default but exclude the ones that succeeded if
		// RestartPolicy is OnFailure.
		for idx, c := range pod.Spec.Containers {
			if containerSucceeded(&c, podStatus) && pod.Spec.RestartPolicy == v1.RestartPolicyOnFailure {
				continue
			}
			changes.ContainersToStart = append(changes.ContainersToStart, idx)
		}
		return changes
	}

	// Check initialization progress.
	initLastStatus, next, done := findNextInitContainerToRun(pod, podStatus)
	if !done {
		if next != nil {
			initFailed := initLastStatus != nil && isContainerFailed(initLastStatus)
			if initFailed && !shouldRestartOnFailure(pod) {
				changes.KillPod = true
			} else {
				changes.NextInitContainerToStart = next
			}
		}
		// Initialization failed or still in progress. Skip inspecting non-init
		// containers.
		return changes
	}

	// Number of running containers to keep.
	keepCount := 0
	// check the status of containers.
	for idx, container := range pod.Spec.Containers {
		containerStatus := podStatus.FindContainerStatusByName(container.Name)

		// Call internal container post-stop lifecycle hook for any non-running container so that any
		// allocated cpus are released immediately. If the container is restarted, cpus will be re-allocated
		// to it.
		if containerStatus != nil && containerStatus.State != kubecontainer.ContainerStateRunning {
			if err := m.internalLifecycle.PostStopContainer(containerStatus.ID.ID); err != nil {
				glog.Errorf("internal container post-stop lifecycle hook failed for container %v in pod %v with error %v",
					container.Name, pod.Name, err)
			}
		}

		// If container does not exist, or is not running, check whether we
		// need to restart it.
		if containerStatus == nil || containerStatus.State != kubecontainer.ContainerStateRunning {
			if kubecontainer.ShouldContainerBeRestarted(&container, pod, podStatus) {
				message := fmt.Sprintf("Container %+v is dead, but RestartPolicy says that we should restart it.", container)
				glog.V(3).Infof(message)
				changes.ContainersToStart = append(changes.ContainersToStart, idx)
			}
			continue
		}
		// The container is running, but kill the container if any of the following condition is met.
		reason := ""
		restart := shouldRestartOnFailure(pod)
		if expectedHash, actualHash, changed := containerChanged(&container, containerStatus); changed {
			reason = fmt.Sprintf("Container spec hash changed (%d vs %d).", actualHash, expectedHash)
			// Restart regardless of the restart policy because the container
			// spec changed.
			restart = true
		} else if liveness, found := m.livenessManager.Get(containerStatus.ID); found && liveness == proberesults.Failure {
			// If the container failed the liveness probe, we should kill it.
			reason = "Container failed liveness probe."
		} else {
			// Keep the container.
			keepCount += 1
			continue
		}

		// We need to kill the container, but if we also want to restart the
		// container afterwards, make the intent clear in the message. Also do
		// not kill the entire pod since we expect container to be running eventually.
		message := reason
		if restart {
			message = fmt.Sprintf("%s. Container will be killed and recreated.", message)
			changes.ContainersToStart = append(changes.ContainersToStart, idx)
		}

		changes.ContainersToKill[containerStatus.ID] = containerToKillInfo{
			name:      containerStatus.Name,
			container: &pod.Spec.Containers[idx],
			message:   message,
		}
		glog.V(2).Infof("Container %q (%q) of pod %s: %s", container.Name, containerStatus.ID, format.Pod(pod), message)
	}

	if keepCount == 0 && len(changes.ContainersToStart) == 0 {
		changes.KillPod = true
	}

	return changes
}
  • computePodActions会检查Pod Sandbox是否发生变更、各个Container(包括InitContainer)的状态等因素来决定是否要重建整个Pod。

  • 遍历Pod内所有Containers:

    • 如果容器还没启动,则会根据Container的重启策略决定是否将Container添加到待启动容器列表中(PodActions.ContainersToStart);
    • 如果容器的Spec发生变更(比较Hash值),则无论重启策略是什么,都要根据新的Spec重建容器,将Container添加到待启动容器列表中(PodActions.ContainersToStart);
    • 如果Container Spec没有变更,liveness probe也是成功的,则该Container将保持不动,否则会将容器将入到待Kill列表中(PodActions.ContainersToKill);

PodActions表示要对Pod进行的操作信息:

pkg/kubelet/kuberuntime/kuberuntime_manager.go:369
// podActions keeps information what to do for a pod.
type podActions struct {
	// Stop all running (regular and init) containers and the sandbox for the pod.
	KillPod bool
	// Whether need to create a new sandbox. If needed to kill pod and create a
	// a new pod sandbox, all init containers need to be purged (i.e., removed).
	CreateSandbox bool
	// The id of existing sandbox. It is used for starting containers in ContainersToStart.
	SandboxID string
	// The attempt number of creating sandboxes for the pod.
	Attempt uint32

	// The next init container to start.
	NextInitContainerToStart *v1.Container
	// ContainersToStart keeps a list of indexes for the containers to start,
	// where the index is the index of the specific container in the pod spec (
	// pod.Spec.Containers.
	ContainersToStart []int
	// ContainersToKill keeps a map of containers that need to be killed, note that
	// the key is the container ID of the container, while
	// the value contains necessary information to kill a container.
	ContainersToKill map[kubecontainer.ContainerID]containerToKillInfo
}

因此,computePodActions的关键是的计算出了待启动的和待Kill的容器列表。接下来,KubeGenericRuntimeManager.SyncPod就会在分别调用KubeGenericRuntimeManager.killContainer和startContainer去杀死和启动容器。

func (m *kubeGenericRuntimeManager) SyncPod(pod *v1.Pod, _ v1.PodStatus, podStatus *kubecontainer.PodStatus, pullSecrets []v1.Secret, backOff *flowcontrol.Backoff) (result kubecontainer.PodSyncResult) {
	// Step 1: Compute sandbox and container changes.
	podContainerChanges := m.computePodActions(pod, podStatus)
	...

	// Step 2: Kill the pod if the sandbox has changed.
	if podContainerChanges.KillPod {
		...
	} else {
		// Step 3: kill any running containers in this pod which are not to keep.
		for containerID, containerInfo := range podContainerChanges.ContainersToKill {
			glog.V(3).Infof("Killing unwanted container %q(id=%q) for pod %q", containerInfo.name, containerID, format.Pod(pod))
			killContainerResult := kubecontainer.NewSyncResult(kubecontainer.KillContainer, containerInfo.name)
			result.AddSyncResult(killContainerResult)
			if err := m.killContainer(pod, containerID, containerInfo.name, containerInfo.message, nil); err != nil {
				killContainerResult.Fail(kubecontainer.ErrKillContainer, err.Error())
				glog.Errorf("killContainer %q(id=%q) for pod %q failed: %v", containerInfo.name, containerID, format.Pod(pod), err)
				return
			}
		}
	}

	...

	// Step 4: Create a sandbox for the pod if necessary.
	podSandboxID := podContainerChanges.SandboxID
	if podContainerChanges.CreateSandbox {
		...
	}

	...

	// Step 5: start the init container.
	if container := podContainerChanges.NextInitContainerToStart; container != nil {
	...		

	}

	// Step 6: start containers in podContainerChanges.ContainersToStart.
	for _, idx := range podContainerChanges.ContainersToStart {
		container := &pod.Spec.Containers[idx]
		startContainerResult := kubecontainer.NewSyncResult(kubecontainer.StartContainer, container.Name)
		result.AddSyncResult(startContainerResult)

		isInBackOff, msg, err := m.doBackOff(pod, container, podStatus, backOff)
		if isInBackOff {
			startContainerResult.Fail(err, msg)
			glog.V(4).Infof("Backing Off restarting container %+v in pod %v", container, format.Pod(pod))
			continue
		}

		glog.V(4).Infof("Creating container %+v in pod %v", container, format.Pod(pod))
		if msg, err := m.startContainer(podSandboxID, podSandboxConfig, container, pod, podStatus, pullSecrets, podIP, kubecontainer.ContainerTypeRegular); err != nil {
			startContainerResult.Fail(err, msg)
			// known errors that are logged in other places are logged at higher levels here to avoid
			// repetitive log spam
			switch {
			case err == images.ErrImagePullBackOff:
				glog.V(3).Infof("container start failed: %v: %s", err, msg)
			default:
				utilruntime.HandleError(fmt.Errorf("container start failed: %v: %s", err, msg))
			}
			continue
		}
	}

	return
}

我们只关注整个流程中与容器原地升级原理相关的代码逻辑,对应的流程图如下:

验证

使用StatefulSet部署一个Demo,然后修改某个Pod的Spec中nginx容器的镜像版本,通过kubelet日志可以发现的确如此。

  kubelet[1121]: I0412 16:34:28.356083    1121 kubelet.go:1868] SyncLoop (UPDATE, "api"): "web-2_default(2813f459-59cc-11e9-a1f7-525400e7b58a)"
  kubelet[1121]: I0412 16:34:28.657836    1121 kuberuntime_manager.go:549] Container "nginx" ({"docker" "8d16517eb4b7b5b84755434eb25c7ab83667bca44318cbbcd89cf8abd232973f"}) of pod web-2_default(2813f459-59cc-11e9-a1f7-525400e7b58a): Container spec hash changed (3176550502 vs 1676109989).. Container will be killed and recreated.
  kubelet[1121]: I0412 16:34:28.658529    1121 kuberuntime_container.go:548] Killing container "docker://8d16517eb4b7b5b84755434eb25c7ab83667bca44318cbbcd89cf8abd232973f" with 10 second grace period
  kubelet[1121]: I0412 16:34:28.814944    1121 kuberuntime_manager.go:757] checking backoff for container "nginx" in pod "web-2_default(2813f459-59cc-11e9-a1f7-525400e7b58a)"
  kubelet[1121]: I0412 16:34:29.179953    1121 kubelet.go:1906] SyncLoop (PLEG): "web-2_default(2813f459-59cc-11e9-a1f7-525400e7b58a)", event: &pleg.PodLifecycleEvent{ID:"2813f459-59cc-11e9-a1f7-525400e7b58a", Type:"ContainerDied", Data:"8d16517eb4b7b5b84755434eb25c7ab83667bca44318cbbcd89cf8abd232973f"}
  kubelet[1121]: I0412 16:34:29.182257    1121 kubelet.go:1906] SyncLoop (PLEG): "web-2_default(2813f459-59cc-11e9-a1f7-525400e7b58a)", event: &pleg.PodLifecycleEvent{ID:"2813f459-59cc-11e9-a1f7-525400e7b58a", Type:"ContainerStarted", Data:"52e30b1aa621a20ae2eae5accf98c451c1be3aed781609d5635a79e48eb98222"}

从本地docker ps -a命令也能得到验证:老的容器被终止了,新的容器起来了,而且watch Pod发现Pod没有重建。

总结

总结一下,当用户修改了Pod Spec中某个Container的Image信息后,在KubeGenericRuntimeManager.computePodActions中发现该Container Spec Hash发生改变,调用KubeGenericRuntimeManager.killContainer将容器优雅终止。旧的容器被杀死之后,computePodActions中会发现Pod Spec中定义的Container没有启动,就会调用KubeGenericRuntimeManager.startContainer启动新的容器,如此即完成Pod不重建的前提下实现容器的原地升级。了解技术原理后,我们可以开发一个CRD/Operator,在Operator的逻辑中,实现业务负载层面的灰度的或者滚动的容器原地升级的能力,这样就能解决臃肿Pod中只更新某个镜像而不影响其他容器的问题了。


 转载至链接:https://my.oschina.net/jxcdwangtao/blog/3037250。




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