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Prometheus 监控 kubernetes


零基础环境

软件版本

  • kubernetes 1.18
  • prometheus 2.21
  • node-exporter 1.0.1
  • kube-state-metrics v2.0.0-alpha.1

一、概述

本篇主要针对Kubernetes部署Prometheus相关配置介绍,自己编写prometheus 的相关yaml。

另外还有开源的方案:prometheus-operator/kube-prometheus

二、安装node-exporter

通过node_exporter获取,node_exporter就是抓取用于采集服务器节点的各种运行指标,目前node_exporter几乎支持所有常见的监控点,比如cpu、distats、loadavg、meminfo、netstat等,详细的监控列表可以参考github repo

这里使用DeamonSet控制器来部署该服务,这样每一个节点都会运行一个Pod,如果我们从集群中删除或添加节点后,也会进行自动扩展

<!--more-->

node-exporter.yaml

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: DaemonSet
metadata:
  labels:
    app: node-exporter
  name: node-exporter-9400
  namespace: default
spec:
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: node-exporter
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: node-exporter
    spec:
      containers:
      - args:
        - --web.listen-address=0.0.0.0:9400
        - --path.procfs=/host/proc
        - --path.sysfs=/host/sys
        - --path.rootfs=/host/root
        image: harbor.foxchan.com/prom/node-exporter:v1.0.1
        imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
        name: node-exporter-9400
        resources: {}
        terminationMessagePath: /dev/termination-log
        terminationMessagePolicy: File
        volumeMounts:
        - mountPath: /host/proc
          name: proc
        - mountPath: /host/sys
          name: sys
        - mountPath: /host/root
          mountPropagation: HostToContainer
          name: root
          readOnly: true
      dnsPolicy: Default
      hostNetwork: true
      hostPID: true
      restartPolicy: Always
      schedulerName: default-scheduler
      securityContext: {}
      terminationGracePeriodSeconds: 30
      volumes:
      - hostPath:
          path: /proc
          type: ""
        name: proc
      - hostPath:
          path: /sys
          type: ""
        name: sys
      - hostPath:
          path: /
          type: ""
        name: root
      tolerations:
      - key: "node-role.kubernetes.io/master"
        operator: "Exists"
        effect: "NoSchedule"
  updateStrategy:
    type: OnDelete

三、安装prometheus

3.1 创建prometheus rbac

01-prom-rbac.yaml

和别人的配置不同在于,添加了ingress等权限,便于后期安装kube-state-metric等第三方插件,因为权限不足无法获取metric的问题

apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: ClusterRole
metadata:
  name: prometheus
rules:
- apiGroups: 
  - ""
  resources:
  - configmaps
  - secrets
  - nodes
  - nodes/proxy
  - nodes/metrics
  - pods
  - services
  - resourcequotas
  - replicationcontrollers
  - limitranges
  - persistentvolumeclaims
  - persistentvolumes
  - namespaces
  - endpoints
  verbs: 
  - get
  - list
  - watch
- apiGroups:
  - extensions
  - networking.k8s.io
  resources:
  - daemonsets
  - deployments
  - replicasets
  - ingresses
  verbs:
  - get
  - list
  - watch
- apiGroups:
  - apps
  resources:
  - daemonsets
  - deployments
  - replicasets
  - ingresses
  verbs:
  - get
  - list
  - watch
- apiGroups:
  - batch
  resources:
  - cronjobs
  - jobs
  verbs:
  - get
  - list
  - watch
- apiGroups:
  - autoscaling
  resources:
  - horizontalpodautoscalers
  verbs:
  - get
  - list
  - watch
- apiGroups:
  - policy
  resources:
  - poddisruptionbudgets
  verbs:
  - get
  - list
  - watch
- nonResourceURLs: 
  - /metrics
  verbs: 
  - get

---
apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
  name: prometheus
  namespace: kube-system

---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
metadata:
  name: prometheus
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: prometheus
subjects:
- kind: ServiceAccount
  name: prometheus
  namespace: kube-system
You have mail in /var/spool/mail/root

3.2 prometheus配置文件

02-prom-cm.yaml

和官方yaml 不一样的地方在于,修改了node 和cadvisor的metric 地址,避免频繁请求apiserver 造成apiserver 压力过大

kind: ConfigMap
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  name: prometheus
  namespace: kube-system
data:
  prometheus.yml: |
    global:
      scrape_interval:     15s
      evaluation_interval: 15s  
      scrape_timeout:      10s
    rule_files:
    - /prometheus-rules/*.rules.yml
    scrape_configs:
      - job_name: 'kubernetes-apiservers'
        kubernetes_sd_configs:
        - role: endpoints
        scheme: https
        tls_config:
          ca_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt
        bearer_token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token
        relabel_configs:
        - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_namespace, __meta_kubernetes_service_name, __meta_kubernetes_endpoint_port_name]
          action: keep
          regex: default;kubernetes;https

      - job_name: 'kubernetes-controller-manager'
        kubernetes_sd_configs:
        - role: endpoints
        scheme: https
        tls_config:
          ca_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt
          insecure_skip_verify: true
        bearer_token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token
        relabel_configs:
        - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_namespace, __meta_kubernetes_service_name, __meta_kubernetes_endpoint_port_name]
          action: keep
          regex: kube-system;kube-controller-manager;https-metrics

      - job_name: 'kubernetes-scheduler'
        kubernetes_sd_configs:
        - role: endpoints
        scheme: https
        tls_config:
          ca_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt
          insecure_skip_verify: true
        bearer_token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token
        relabel_configs:
        - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_namespace, __meta_kubernetes_service_name, __meta_kubernetes_endpoint_port_name]
          action: keep
          regex: kube-system;kube-scheduler;https-metrics

      - job_name: 'kubernetes-nodes'
        scheme: https
        tls_config:
          ca_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt
          insecure_skip_verify: true
        bearer_token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token

        kubernetes_sd_configs:
        - role: node

        relabel_configs:
        - action: labelmap
          regex: __meta_kubernetes_node_label_(.+)

      - job_name: 'kubernetes-cadvisor'
        metrics_path: /metrics/cadvisor
        scheme: https
        tls_config:
          ca_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt
          insecure_skip_verify: true
        bearer_token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token

        kubernetes_sd_configs:
        - role: node

        relabel_configs:
        - action: labelmap
          regex: __meta_kubernetes_node_label_(.+)

        metric_relabel_configs:
        - source_labels: [instance]
          regex: (.+)
          target_label: node
          replacement: $1
          action: replace

      - job_name: 'kubernetes-service-endpoints'
        scrape_interval: 1m
        scrape_timeout: 10s
        metrics_path: /metrics
        scheme: http

        kubernetes_sd_configs:
        - role: endpoints

        relabel_configs:
        - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_annotation_prometheus_io_scrape]
          regex: "true"
          action: keep
        - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_annotation_prometheus_io_metric_path]
          action: replace
          target_label: __metrics_path__
          regex: (.+)
        - source_labels: [__address__, __meta_kubernetes_service_annotation_prometheus_io_port]
          action: replace
          regex: ([^:]+)(?::\d+)?;(\d+)
          replacement: $1:$2
          target_label: __address__
        - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_annotation_prometheus_io_scrape_scheme]
          action: replace
          target_label: __scheme__
          regex: (https?)
        - action: labelmap
          regex: __meta_kubernetes_service_label_(.+)
        - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_namespace]
          action: replace
          target_label: kubernetes_namespace
        - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_name]
          action: replace
          target_label: kubernetes_name

      - job_name: 'kubernetes-services'
        metrics_path: /probe
        params:
          module: [http_2xx]        

        kubernetes_sd_configs:
        - role: service

        relabel_configs:
        - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_annotation_prometheus_io_should_be_probed]
          action: keep
          regex: true   
        - source_labels: [__address__]
          target_label: __param_target
        - target_label: __address__
          replacement: blackbox-exporter.default.svc.cluster.local:9115
        - source_labels: [__param_target]
          target_label: instance
          action: labelmap
          regex: __meta_kubernetes_service_label_(.+)
        - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_namespace]
          target_label: kubernetes_namespace
        - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_service_name]
          target_label: kubernetes_name

      - job_name: 'kubernetes-ingresses'
        metrics_path: /probe
        params:
          module: [http_2xx]

        kubernetes_sd_configs:
        - role: ingress

        relabel_configs:
        - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_ingress_annotation_prometheus_io_should_be_probed]
          action: keep
          regex: true
        - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_ingress_scheme,__address__,__meta_kubernetes_ingress_path]
          regex: (.+);(.+);(.+)
          replacement: ${1}://${2}${3}
          target_label: __param_target
        - target_label: __address__
          replacement: blackbox-exporter.default.svc.cluster.local:9115
        - source_labels: [__param_target]
          target_label: instance
        - action: labelmap
          regex: __meta_kubernetes_ingress_label_(.+)
        - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_namespace]
          target_label: kubernetes_namespace
        - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_ingress_name]
          target_label: kubernetes_name

      - job_name: 'kubernetes-pods'

        kubernetes_sd_configs:
        - role: pod

        relabel_configs:
        - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_pod_annotation_prometheus_io_should_be_scraped]
          action: keep
          regex: true
        - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_pod_annotation_prometheus_io_metric_path]
          action: replace
          target_label: __metrics_path__
          regex: (.+)
        - source_labels: [__address__, __meta_kubernetes_pod_annotation_prometheus_io_port]
          action: replace
          regex: ([^:]+)(?::\d+)?;(\d+)
          replacement: $1:$2
          target_label: __address__
        - action: labelmap
          regex: __meta_kubernetes_pod_label_(.+)
        - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_namespace]
          action: replace
          target_label: kubernetes_namespace
        - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_pod_name]
          action: replace
          target_label: kubernetes_pod_name

3.3 部署prometheus deployment

03-prom-deploy.yaml

添加了node selectorhostnetwork

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: prometheus
  namespace: kube-system
  labels:
    app: prometheus
spec:
  ports:
  - name: web
    port: 9090
    protocol: TCP
    targetPort: web
  selector:
    app: prometheus
---
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: prometheus
  namespace: kube-system
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: prometheus
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: prometheus
    spec:
      serviceAccountName: prometheus
      serviceAccount: prometheus
      initContainers:
      - name: "init-chown-data"
        image: "harbor.foxchan.com/sys/busybox:latest"
        imagePullPolicy: "IfNotPresent"
        command: ["chown", "-R", "65534:65534", "/prometheus/data"]
        volumeMounts:
        - name: prometheusdata
          mountPath: /prometheus/data
          subPath: ""
      volumes:
      - hostPath:
          path: /data/prometheus
        name: prometheusdata
      containers:
      - name: prometheus
        image: harbor.foxchan.com/prom/prometheus:v2.21.0
        imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
        ports:
        - containerPort: 9090
          name: web
          protocol: TCP
        args:
          - '--config.file=/etc/prometheus/prometheus.yml'
          - '--web.listen-address=:9090'
          - '--web.enable-admin-api'
          - '--web.enable-lifecycle'
          - '--log.level=info'
          - '--storage.tsdb.path=/prometheus/data'
          - '--storage.tsdb.retention=15d'
        volumeMounts:
        - name: config-volume
          mountPath: /etc/prometheus
        - name: prometheusdata
          mountPath: /prometheus/data
        - mountPath: /prometheus-rules
          name: prometheus-rules-all
      volumes:
      - name: config-volume
        configMap:
          name: prometheus-gs
      - hostPath:
          path: /data/prometheus
        name: prometheusdata  
      - name: prometheus-rules-all
        projected:
          defaultMode: 420
          sources:
          - configMap:
              name: prometheus-k8s-rules
          - configMap:
              name: prometheus-nodeexporter-rules
      dnsPolicy: ClusterFirst
      nodeSelector:
        monitor: prometheus-gs

3.4 创建rules configmap

prom-node-rules-cm.yaml

apiVersion: v1
data:
  node-exporter.rules.yml: |
    groups:  
    - name: node-exporter.rules
      rules:
      - expr: |
          count without (cpu) (
            count without (mode) (
              node_cpu_seconds_total{job="node-exporter"}
            )
          )
        record: instance:node_num_cpu:sum
      - expr: |
          1 - avg without (cpu, mode) (
            rate(node_cpu_seconds_total{job="node-exporter", mode="idle"}[1m])
          )
        record: instance:node_cpu_utilisation:rate1m
      - expr: |
          (
            node_load1{job="node-exporter"}
          /
            instance:node_num_cpu:sum{job="node-exporter"}
          )
        record: instance:node_load1_per_cpu:ratio
      - expr: |
          1 - (
            node_memory_MemAvailable_bytes{job="node-exporter"}
          /
            node_memory_MemTotal_bytes{job="node-exporter"}
          )
        record: instance:node_memory_utilisation:ratio
      - expr: |
          rate(node_vmstat_pgmajfault{job="node-exporter"}[1m])
        record: instance:node_vmstat_pgmajfault:rate1m
      - expr: |
          rate(node_disk_io_time_seconds_total{job="node-exporter", device=~"nvme.+|rbd.+|sd.+|vd.+|xvd.+|dm-.+|dasd.+"}[1m])
        record: instance_device:node_disk_io_time_seconds:rate1m
      - expr: |
          rate(node_disk_io_time_weighted_seconds_total{job="node-exporter", device=~"nvme.+|rbd.+|sd.+|vd.+|xvd.+|dm-.+|dasd.+"}[1m])
        record: instance_device:node_disk_io_time_weighted_seconds:rate1m
      - expr: |
          sum without (device) (
            rate(node_network_receive_bytes_total{job="node-exporter", device!="lo"}[1m])
          )
        record: instance:node_network_receive_bytes_excluding_lo:rate1m
      - expr: |
          sum without (device) (
            rate(node_network_transmit_bytes_total{job="node-exporter", device!="lo"}[1m])
          )
        record: instance:node_network_transmit_bytes_excluding_lo:rate1m
      - expr: |
          sum without (device) (
            rate(node_network_receive_drop_total{job="node-exporter", device!="lo"}[1m])
          )
        record: instance:node_network_receive_drop_excluding_lo:rate1m
      - expr: |
          sum without (device) (
            rate(node_network_transmit_drop_total{job="node-exporter", device!="lo"}[1m])
          )
        record: instance:node_network_transmit_drop_excluding_lo:rate1m
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: prometheus-nodeexporter-rules
  namespace: kube-system

prom-k8s-rules-cm.yaml

其余的rules 因为太大,放到git仓库

四、kube-state-metrics集群资源监控

4.1 概述

已经有了cadvisor,几乎容器运行的所有指标都能拿到,但是下面这种情况却无能为力:

  • 我调度了多少个replicas?现在可用的有几个?
  • 多少个Pod是running/stopped/terminated状态?
  • Pod重启了多少次?
  • 我有多少job在运行中

而这些则是kube-state-metrics提供的内容,它基于client-go开发,轮询Kubernetes API,并将Kubernetes的结构化信息转换为metrics。

4.2 功能

kube-state-metrics提供的指标,按照阶段分为三种类别:

  • 1.实验性质的:k8s api中alpha阶段的或者spec的字段。
  • 2.稳定版本的:k8s中不向后兼容的主要版本的更新
  • 3.被废弃的:已经不在维护的。

kube-state-metricskubernetes 版本对应列表

kube-state-metrics Kubernetes 1.15 Kubernetes 1.16 Kubernetes 1.17 Kubernetes 1.18 Kubernetes 1.19
v1.8.0 - - - -
v1.9.7 - - - -
v2.0.0-alpha.1 - -
master - -
  • Fully supported version range.
  • - The Kubernetes cluster has features the client-go library can't use (additional API objects, deprecated APIs, etc).

4.3 安装

创建rbac

01-kube-state-rbac.yaml

apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: Role
metadata:
  labels:
    app.kubernetes.io/name: kube-state-metrics
    app.kubernetes.io/version: 2.0.0-alpha
  name: kube-state-metrics
  namespace: kube-system
rules:
- apiGroups:
  - ""
  resources:
  - pods
  verbs:
  - get
- apiGroups:
  - apps
  resourceNames:
  - kube-state-metrics
  resources:
  - statefulsets
  verbs:
  - get
---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRole
metadata:
  labels:
    app.kubernetes.io/name: kube-state-metrics
    app.kubernetes.io/version: 2.0.0-alpha
  name: kube-state-metrics
rules:
- apiGroups:
  - ""
  resources:
  - configmaps
  - secrets
  - nodes
  - pods
  - services
  - resourcequotas
  - replicationcontrollers
  - limitranges
  - persistentvolumeclaims
  - persistentvolumes
  - namespaces
  - endpoints
  verbs:
  - list
  - watch
  - get
- apiGroups:
  - extensions
  resources:
  - daemonsets
  - deployments
  - replicasets
  - ingresses
  verbs:
  - list
  - watch
- apiGroups:
  - apps
  resources:
  - statefulsets
  - daemonsets
  - deployments
  - replicasets
  verbs:
  - list
  - watch
  - get
- apiGroups:
  - batch
  resources:
  - cronjobs
  - jobs
  verbs:
  - list
  - watch
- apiGroups:
  - autoscaling
  resources:
  - horizontalpodautoscalers
  verbs:
  - list
  - watch
- apiGroups:
  - authentication.k8s.io
  resources:
  - tokenreviews
  verbs:
  - create
- apiGroups:
  - authorization.k8s.io
  resources:
  - subjectacce***eviews
  verbs:
  - create
- apiGroups:
  - policy
  resources:
  - poddisruptionbudgets
  verbs:
  - list
  - watch
- apiGroups:
  - certificates.k8s.io
  resources:
  - certificatesigningrequests
  verbs:
  - list
  - watch
- apiGroups:
  - storage.k8s.io
  resources:
  - storageclasses
  - volumeattachments
  verbs:
  - list
  - watch
- apiGroups:
  - admissionregistration.k8s.io
  resources:
  - mutatingwebhookconfigurations
  - validatingwebhookconfigurations
  verbs:
  - list
  - watch
- apiGroups:
  - networking.k8s.io
  resources:
  - networkpolicies
  verbs:
  - list
  - watch
- apiGroups:
  - coordination.k8s.io
  resources:
  - leases
  verbs:
  - list
  - watch
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
  labels:
    app.kubernetes.io/name: kube-state-metrics
    app.kubernetes.io/version: 2.0.0-alpha
  name: kube-state-metrics
  namespace: kube-system

---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: RoleBinding
metadata:
  labels:
    app.kubernetes.io/name: kube-state-metrics
    app.kubernetes.io/version: 2.0.0-alpha
  name: kube-state-metrics
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: Role
  name: kube-state-metrics
subjects:
- kind: ServiceAccount
  name: kube-state-metrics
---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
metadata:
  labels:
    app.kubernetes.io/name: kube-state-metrics
    app.kubernetes.io/version: 2.0.0-alpha
  name: kube-state-metrics
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: kube-state-metrics
subjects:
- kind: ServiceAccount
  name: kube-state-metrics
  namespace: kube-system

创建sts

02-kube-state-sts.yaml

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: StatefulSet
metadata:
  labels:
    app.kubernetes.io/name: kube-state-metrics
    app.kubernetes.io/version: 2.0.0-alpha
  name: kube-state-metrics
  namespace: kube-system
spec:
  replicas: 2
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app.kubernetes.io/name: kube-state-metrics
  serviceName: kube-state-metrics
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app.kubernetes.io/name: kube-state-metrics
        app.kubernetes.io/version: 2.0.0-alpha
    spec:
      containers:
      - args:
        - --pod=$(POD_NAME)
        - --pod-namespace=$(POD_NAMESPACE)
        env:
        - name: POD_NAME
          value: ""
          valueFrom:
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: metadata.name
        - name: POD_NAMESPACE
          value: ""
          valueFrom:
            fieldRef:
              fieldPath: metadata.namespace
        image: harbor.foxchan.com/coreos/kube-state-metrics:v2.0.0-alpha.1
        livenessProbe:
          httpGet:
            path: /healthz
            port: 8080
          initialDelaySeconds: 5
          timeoutSeconds: 5
        name: kube-state-metrics
        ports:
        - containerPort: 8080
          name: http-metrics
        - containerPort: 8081
          name: telemetry
        readinessProbe:
          httpGet:
            path: /
            port: 8081
          initialDelaySeconds: 5
          timeoutSeconds: 5
        securityContext:
          runAsUser: 65534
      nodeSelector:
        kubernetes.io/os: linux
      serviceAccountName: kube-state-metrics
  volumeClaimTemplates: []
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  annotations:
    prometheus.io/scrape: 'true'
    prometheus.io/port: "8080"
  labels:
    app.kubernetes.io/name: kube-state-metrics
    app.kubernetes.io/version: 2.0.0-alpha
  name: kube-state-metrics
  namespace: kube-system
spec:
  clusterIP: None
  ports:
  - name: http-metrics
    port: 8080
    targetPort: http-metrics
  - name: telemetry
    port: 8081
    targetPort: telemetry
  selector:
    app.kubernetes.io/name: kube-state-metrics

五、添加Scheduler和Controller配置

创建kube-controller-manager和kube-scheduler service

高版本k8s 默认使用https,kube-controller-manager端口10257 kube-scheduler端口10259

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: kube-controller-manager
  namespace: kube-system
  labels:
    component: kube-controller-manager # 与pod中的labels匹配,便于自动生成endpoints
spec:
  selector:
    component: kube-controller-manager
  type: ClusterIP
  clusterIP: None
  ports:
  - name: https-metrics
    port: 10257
    protocol: TCP
    targetPort: 10257

---
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: kube-scheduler
  namespace: kube-system
  labels:
    component: kube-scheduler # 与pod中的labels匹配,便于自动生成endpoints
spec:
  selector:
    component: kube-scheduler
  type: ClusterIP
  clusterIP: None
  ports:
  - name: https-metrics
    port: 10259
    targetPort: 10259
    protocol: TCP

修改yaml文件

默认情况下,kube-controller-managerkube-scheduler绑定IP为127.0.0.1,需要改监听地址。

metrics的访问需要证书验证,需要取消证书验证。

修改kube-controller-manager.yamlkube-scheduler.yaml

    --bind-address=0.0.0.0
    --authorization-always-allow-paths=/healthz,/metrics

添加prometheus 配置文件

      - job_name: 'kubernetes-controller-manager'
        kubernetes_sd_configs:
        - role: endpoints
        scheme: https
        tls_config:
          ca_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt
          insecure_skip_verify: true
        bearer_token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token
        relabel_configs:
        - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_namespace, __meta_kubernetes_service_name, __meta_kubernetes_endpoint_port_name]
          action: keep
          regex: kube-system;kube-controller-manager;https-metrics

      - job_name: 'kubernetes-scheduler'
        kubernetes_sd_configs:
        - role: endpoints
        scheme: https
        tls_config:
          ca_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/ca.crt
          insecure_skip_verify: true
        bearer_token_file: /var/run/secrets/kubernetes.io/serviceaccount/token
        relabel_configs:
        - source_labels: [__meta_kubernetes_namespace, __meta_kubernetes_service_name, __meta_kubernetes_endpoint_port_name]
          action: keep
          regex: kube-system;kube-scheduler;https-metrics

六、其他exporter

6.1 blackbox-exporter

官方提供的 exporter 之一,可以提供 http、dns、tcp、icmp 的监控数据采集

Blackbox_exporter 应用场景

  • HTTP 测试
    定义 Request Header 信息
    判断 Http status / Http Respones Header / Http Body 内容

  • TCP 测试
    业务组件端口状态监听
    应用层协议定义与监听

  • ICMP 测试
    主机探活机制
  • POST 测试
    接口联通性
  • SSL 证书过期时间

yaml

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  annotations:
    prometheus.io/scrape: 'true'
  labels:
    app: blackbox-exporter
  name: blackbox-exporter
spec:
  ports:
  - name: blackbox
    port: 9115
    protocol: TCP
  selector:
    app: blackbox-exporter
  type: ClusterIP

---
apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  labels:
    app: blackbox-exporter
  name: blackbox-exporter
data:
  blackbox.yml: |-
    modules:
      http_2xx:
        prober: http
        timeout: 30s
        http:
          valid_http_versions: ["HTTP/1.1", "HTTP/2"]
          valid_status_codes: [200,302,301,401,404]
          method: GET
          preferred_ip_protocol: "ip4"

---
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  labels:
    app: blackbox-exporter
  name: blackbox-exporter
spec:
  replicas: 1
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: blackbox-exporter
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        app: blackbox-exporter
    spec:
      containers:
      - image: harbor.foxchan.com/prom/blackbox-exporter:v0.16.0
        imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
        name: blackbox-exporter
        ports:
        - name: blackbox-port
          containerPort: 9115
        readinessProbe:
          tcpSocket:
            port: 9115
          initialDelaySeconds: 5
          timeoutSeconds: 5
        volumeMounts:
        - name: config
          mountPath: /etc/blackbox_exporter
        args:
        - --config.file=/etc/blackbox_exporter/blackbox.yml
        - --log.level=debug
        - --web.listen-address=:9115
      volumes:
      - name: config
        configMap:
          name: blackbox-exporter
      nodeSelector:
        monitorexport: "blackbox"
      tolerations:
      - key: "node-role.kubernetes.io/master"
        effect: "NoSchedule"

七、grafana根据不同prometheus server统计数据

场景:由于采集的数据量巨大,所以部署了多台prometheus server服务器。根据业务领域(k8s集群)分片采集,减轻prometheus server单节点的压力。

1.首先,在grafana中添加多个prometheus server数据源。

截图中的Prometheus就是我不同机房的数据源

Prometheus 监控 kubernetes

2.在dashboard的变量中,添加datasource变量

Prometheus 监控 kubernetes

3.在panel中,选择datasource变量作为数据源

Prometheus 监控 kubernetes


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